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Rendering Text In Flash Via The GPU - Max Did It
Max Did It
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Rendering Text In Flash Via The GPU

In this article, I want to look at what options you have for rendering characters and texts in Actionscript projects using Stage3D.

I also want to introduce my latest project, the firetype library, which lets you render hardware accelerated texts in Flash in a similar way to Scaleform.

Steps In Using firetype

Rendering Text In Stage3D Projects with On-Board Features

I’m trying to use the current Flash Player’s 3D abilities as much as possible to implement higher quality and more fluent graphics in my games.

However, there are certain cases where Stage3D is not on par yet with the classic software rendering features of Flash.

One thing that bothered me while developing both Satellite and Rubberband Racing was the unwieldy way of displaying texts in a project relying on Stage3D to render its content.

Rendering Text With the Display List On Top Of Stage3D Content

In Satellite, I simply used Flex components rendered on top of the 3D context to display my UI and any texts in the game. This gets the job done, but knowing how this case is handled internally leaves a bad taste in my mouth.

If the Flash Player is supposed to show display list content on top of 3D graphics, it will

  • render it into a bitmap,
  • upload the result as a texture into GPU memory
  • and put it as a screen filling quad on top of the previously rendered content.

While I don’t have definitive numbers on this case, I’m sure that the frequent texture uploads and the fillrate of a screen-filling textured quad are not beneficial for the render performance. Also, you are still stuck with rendering portions of your content the old-fasioned way via the CPU.

Rendering Text Into Textures

In Rubberband Racing, all dynamic texts are using the classic TextField object to render their contents into a Texture, which I then render on separate quads.

This is similar to how the first case is handled internally, but gives you more control over when, and what, is put into textures and how big the quads rendering the images actually are.

Still, Flash will use the CPU to draw the characters. Also, this method is troublesome insofar as you have to implement logic that positions and scales the text properly within the boundaries of the bitmap you are rendering into.

This sounds like it shouldn’t be a big deal, but since the measurements returned by TextField can be inaccurate, getting this right can be annoying.

Another drawback of this method is that scaling the quads containing the text will make it appear blurry, depending on the resolution of the texture.

Rendering Text Directly Via The GPU

In my opinion, all content in a Stage3D project should actually be rendered via the graphics card, instead of splitting the rendering between GPU and CPU.

In triple-A titles like Gears Of War or Crysis, the menus and the characters are rendered in 3D with a middleware called Scaleform. Scaleform reads SWF files, converts the contained vector data into polygons and then renders those.

To my knowledge, there was no library available for Flash with a comparable functionality. This is why I decided to implement my own library which, for now, focuses on rendering texts in Flash on the 3D hardware.


firetype reads and parses TrueType fonts using the OpenType file format, converts the characters into polygon objects and renders them via the GPU. (As far as I can tell basically all current TrueType fonts use the OpenType format).

Steps In Using firetype

You can check out a live demo of firetype here:
firetype live demo

You can find the source code, firetype tutorials and the current version of the firetype SWC here:
firetype on GitHub


Resolution Independence

One major advantage of using firetype is that it makes it easier to handle the resolutions of different versions of your Flash or AIR application.

You can arbitrarily scale the texts without worrying about texture resolutions or the performance impact of software rendering on mobile devices.

Rendering Does Not Have Any Impact On CPU Performance

Each character handled by firetype is rendered entirely on the graphics hardware. This makes it several magnitudes faster than classic software rendered text objects in Flash.

This can be especially interesting for mobile devices, where rendering via the CPU can noticeably slow down performance.

Only Renders Pixels Actually Occupied By Characters

When rendering texts with the help of textures, there are usually significant amounts of transparent space between lines and characters which still cause calls to the pixel shader and texture lookups for each pixel.

This is not an issue with firetype. Since characters are polygon objects, only pixels actually covered by the triangles are rendered.


Moving Texts Still Impacts CPU Performance

While rendering does not cause any calculations on the processor, moving any text in firetype requires the transformation matrices of each character to be recalculated.

In my experience, this still takes up only a fraction of your CPU budget in a frame. However, due to this firetype is basically on par with software rendered texts which have been cached as bitmaps.

firetype still wins if you scale or rotate said texts.

Noticable Lag When Initializing the First Text

firetype caches the polygon data of any character that has been already used.

The first text that you render with a certain font and level of detail will cause firetype to cache each character it encounters for the first time.

This can cause a short lag, which should be below a second in duration, but is still noticeable.

Every subsequent text using the same font and level of detail should cause no lag at all.

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